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2019 Employment Law Manual

By Andrew Kopon Jr., Colette L. Kopon, and Lynn S. Kopon

Andrew Kopon Jr.,  and  Colette L. Kopon, and Lynn S. Kopon have released Kopon Airdo’s updated comprehensive reference guide for employers.  The Employment Law Manual 2019 includes a discussion of recent judicial and legislative developments, information regarding the major federal employment law statutes, practical management considerations, and sample personnel policies, performance evaluations, and other personnel-related forms.

Please contact Colette L. Kopon at (312) 506-4459 or [email protected] to request a copy of the 2019 Employment Law Manual.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2019 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY     i

EMPLOYMENT LAW STATUTES

I.    TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT      1

Who is an Employer    1

Who is an Employee    1

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission & Title VII    2

Who May Sue Under Title VII?    4

Title VII Damages    4

Prohibited Conduct Under Title VII    7

               Examples of Unlawful Conduct under Title VII    7

Religious Discrimination    7

Race/Color Discrimination    8

National Origin Discrimination    9

Sex Discrimination    9

Title VII Hostile Work Environment/Harassment     12

Title VII Section 1981 RETALIATION    14

Associational Retaliation    16

Examples of Retaliation Under Title VII    17

Sexual Harassment    19

       Quid Pro Quo Harassment     19

       Hostile Work Environment    19

Employer Liability for Sexual Harassment    21

       Warning Signs of Sexual Harassment    21

       Supervisors to Response to Sexual Harassment    22

       Sexual Harassment Policy    22

Employer’s Affirmative Defenses    23

Sex Discrimination and Pregnancy Discrimination Act    27

Maternity Leave    29

Paternity Leave     29

Marital Status     29

Abortion     30

Religious Discrimination    30

Definition of Religion    31

Reasonable Accommodations    31

Undue Hardships    33

Title VII Exemptions for Religious Organizations    33

Discrimination on Other Projected Categories    34

The “Ministerial Exception”    35

II.   THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT     39

Associational Discrimination     39

Retaliation     39

Who Monitors Enforcement of the ADA and ADAAA     39

To Whom Does the ADA Apply     39

What Does the ADA Require of Employers?     39

What is a Disability?     40

Who is a Qualified Individual?     42

What is a Reasonable Accommodation?    43

What is an Undue Hardship?     45

Medical Examinations     46

Pre-Employment Inquiries     47

Last Chance Agreements     48

Damages     48

III.   AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT     50

Permissible Actions by Employers    51

Constructive Discharge    52

Reverse Discrimination    52

Filing a Claim     53

Reductions in Force    53

Older Worker Benefits Protection Act    54

Damages    55

IV.    THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT     56

Who is an Employer?    56

Joint Employers    57

What is a Serious Health Condition?    57

Who is Eligible?    58

How Can Leave be Taken    58

Calculating the Year for FMLA Purposes    59

Paid or Unpaid Leave    59

Employer Notice Requirements    60

Employee Notice Requirements    60

Husband and Wife Employed by the Same Employer    60

Supporting Documentation    60

Enforcement     61

Recordkeeping Requirements    61

Returning After the Leave Period Expires    62

Health Benefits During the Leave    63

Military-Related FMLA Leave    63

Qualifying Exigency Leave    63

Military Caregiver Leave    64

Special Considerations for Schools    64

Common FMLA Forms    66

 V.   OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES    67

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1991    67

Scope of the Civil Rights Act of 1991    67

Differences from Title VII    67

Damages    68

UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT (USERRA)     69

What Employees are Covered?    69

What Employers are Covered?    69

What Does the Law Provide?    69

 What Documentation May an Employer Request?    71

What Position Must a Covered Employee be Restored to?    71

       “Escalator” Position    72

What if the Covered Employee has Become Disabled?    72

What Rights and Benefits do Covered Employees Have?    73

      THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT    75

What is the FLSA    75

Liability Under the FLSA    75

 Independent Contractors    76

Joint Employers    77

Who is an Exempt Employee?    78

Special Rules for Certain Categories of Employees    79

FLSA Minimum Wage Requirements    81

Deductions    82

Hours Worked    83

FLSA Child Labor Requirements    85

FLSA Recordkeeping Requirements    85

The FLSA and The Equal Pay Act    86

State and Local Government Employees    86

Class Actions Under the FLSA    87

Arbitration Clauses    87

 THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT    89

Who is  Covered?    89

What Activity is Protected?    89

How Does the NLRA Affect My Organization?    90

What Employment Policies Are Allowed?    90

EQUAL PAY ACT    90

Definition of Wages    91

Definition of Employer    91

Pay Differentials    91

Stating a Claim    92

Defenses    92

Damages    92

Statute a Limitations    92

State Statues    93

THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT    93

Who is Protected by the FCRA?    93

What is a Consumer Report?    94

Key Provisions of the FCRA    94

Investigations Exempt From the FCRA    95

 SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002    95

Protection of Whistleblowers    95

Requirements of the Act    96

Arbitration Agreements    96

Filing a Claim    97

Damages    97

Compliance Guidance    97

THE ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS PRIVACY ACT   98

Exceptions to Employers’ Interception of Communications    99

Intercepting Live Conversations    99

Penalties and Damages    100

Statute of Limitations    100

State “Wiretap” Statutes    100

Tips for Employers    100

THE VOLUNTEER PROTECTION ACT    100    

Definition of Volunteer    101

Definition of Nonprofit Organization    101

Liability of Volunteers    102

Damages    102

Preemption of State Volunteer Laws    102

Recommendation for Not-for-Profit Organizations    103

MEDICAL MARIJUANA UPDATE    104    

Current Federal Guidelines    102

Employer Recommendations    105

What Are the Courts Saying?    105

RETALIATORY DISCHARGE UNDER ILLINOIS COMMON LAW    108

VI.      VARIOUS ILLINOIS STATUTES    109

The Illinois Religious Freedom and Marriage Fairness Act    109

The Illinois Employee Credit Privacy Act    109

The Illinois Human Rights Act    109

The Victims’ Economic Security and Safety Act    113

Illinois Equal Pay Act    116

                Illinois Service Member Employment and Reemployment Rights Act    118

Illinois Right to Privacy in the Workplace Act    118

Personnel Record Review Act    117

               Biometric Information Privacy Act    122

Wage Payment and Collection Act    123

Illinois Minimum Wage Law    124

Veterans Preference in Private Employment Act    126

Illinois One Day Rest in Seven Act (ODRISA)    127

Illinois Right of Publicity Act    127

Illinois Child Bereavement Leave Act    128

Illinois Pregnancy Accommodation Act    128

                Illinois Nursing Mothers in the Workplace Act    129

Illinois Freedom to Work Act (Concerning Non-Compete Agreements)   129

Illinois Sick Leave Laws    129

VII.      ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS    131

General Principles    131

The Federal Arbitration Act    132

What Types of Arbitration Agreements are Unenforceable?    131

Arbitrator’s Decisions    132

Appealing an Arbitrator’s Decision    132

State Statutes    133

Suggestions for Drafting    134

PRACTICAL EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS

VIII.     PREVENTATIVE EMPLOYMENT MEASURES    136

Job Postings    136

Pre-Employment Screening    136

Hiring    138

Performance Reviews    139

Disciplinary Action    140

Leave of Absence Policies    141

Advancements or Promotions    142

Layoffs and Terminations    143

Severance Agreements    144

References for Former Employees    144

The EEOC’s Five Core Principles for Preventing & Addressing Harassment    145

IX.    EMPLOYEE HANDBOOKS    146

At-Will Employment    146

 Handbooks and Implied Contracts    147

Acceptance of the Handbook    150

Disclaimers    151

 Modification of an Existing Employee Handbook    152

Drafting an Employee Handbook    153

X.  EMPLOYMENT LIABILITY INVESTIGATIONS    156

Employer’s Duty to Investigate    157

How Should an Employer Plan an Investigation?    158

               Planning a Reasonable and Effective Investigation    159

Confidentiality    160

Conducting an Investigation    160

Concluding an Investigation: The Investigative File and Report    165

APPENDIX

Americans With Disabilities Act Statement    169

Whistleblower Protection    170

Drugs and Alcohol – Zero Tolerance Policy    171

Equal Employment Opportunity Policy    172

Image Consent and Release Form    172

Social Media Policy    174

               Computer Usage and Technology Policy    180

Draft Sexual Harassment Prevention Policy    185

Retaliation/Reprisal Prohibition-Confidentiality    186

Supervisors’ Responsibilities Policy Implementation    187

Employments Rights/Complaints Procedures    187

               FORMS

Employee Handbook Acknowledgement Form    189

Employee Complaint Form    190

Confidential Investigation Report    193

Employee Performance Planning and Review Forms    194